When it comes to low-cost manufacturing and manufacturing, the China always comes up, so also for the sector of photovoltaic. There China is the first country in the world for the production of photovoltaic cells and modules and with the market trend, it becomes increasingly difficult to subtract this primacy.
The photovoltaic made in China is exported all over the globe except a few countries: the nations that protect photovoltaic companies and provide good public incentives are able to keep up with the photovoltaic from China. Two countries that favor local producers are Japan and the United States, especially as regards the domestic market.
In the United States, the industry's leading manufacturers photovoltaic they are First Solar and SunPower. In Japan, the records are held by Sharp, Kuocera, Panasonic and Solar Frontier who manage to outdo all Chinese competitors. It must be said that to discourage the purchase of Chinese photovoltaic, the United States has introduced quite high customs duties and Japan has also introduced rules to protect local producers.
European companies have lobbied for customs duties on the import of photovoltaic from China. All attempts have failed and even the anti-dumping investigation launched by the European Commission has not brought results. Thus China has become the master of the sun with surprising market shares: Chinese manufacturers cover 41 percent of the market, plus some manufacturers who only manufactured solar cells, have managed to make the leap by producing complete modules themselves. This is the case of the Chinese JA Solar and Hareon Solar which in 2011 produced almost exclusively solar cells while today they export complete modules. In Australia, 50 per cent of the market is held by a monopoly of Chinese producers.