When we talk aboutbiofuelwe refer to a large variety of molecular complexes, it is about fuel of organic originwhich according to the starting product can be divided into four different categories, so we have ibiofuelsfrom sugary fermentation, such as bioethanol and Methyl-Terziar-Butyl Ether, the most common biodiesel, or biofuels of oil origin, biofuels from anaerobic digestion, is the case of the much discussed biogas and, finally, second generation biofuels, derivatives from the lignocellulosic mass such as Dimethylether and Ft-Diesel.
Thebiogasit is not the only onebiofuelto arouse environmental and social concerns and many controversies. The question that arises is:
- the agricultural land used for the production ofbiofueldo they take away space from agri-food crops?
- Land-grabbing linked to the production ofbiofuel is it ethically correct?
- The production ofbiofuelwill it have a negative impact on food prices?
- Thebiofuelit is actually more sustainable than classic fossil fuels?
There corn cultivation on a large scale it has multiple consequences, not just onfood prices but also on the environment. Just think of the subtraction of soil from forests or of techniques that eliminate the normal rotation of crops by replacing it with an even more massive use of fertilizer. Another sore point of thecorn cultivation lies in the excessive use of water resources.
Some of the positives related to the production ofbiofuelthey are very intuitive, others less obvious! Everyone knows that with thebiofuelsdependence on fossil fuels decreases but no one reflects on other points:
- decentralization of production so as to eliminate the problem of monopolies, price cartels, control of supplies ...
- exploitation of unproductive land abandoned by agricultural crops: only in Italy, the University of Siena, has estimated that there is an unproductive area of about 20,000 km2
- exploitation of abandoned plants such as sugar refineries or other adaptable plants for the production of bioethanol
- creation of many jobs
- with the large-scale diffusion of thebiofuelconflicts related to the ownership and management of oil fields would decrease
From an environmental point of view, to make thebiofuelsreally convenient, it is necessary to respect the annual production limits and the limits of exploitation of resources in order to obtain a positive energy ratio.