Red wine: benefits and harm linked to the presence of ethanol and other constituents. Advantages and disadvantages of consumingRed wine, recommended daily amount and things to know.
Before talking specifically about theRed wine, it is necessary to make a premise ondamagerelated to alcohol consumption. Red wine is an alcoholic beverage and, as such, its consumption should be moderate.
The damage caused by alcohol is now known to all: it suppresses liver functions, alters pancreatic activity and suppresses a good number of biological functions in our body. Alcohol consumption has been linked to a number of diseases, including early senile dementia. The WHO, as well as the IARC, has inserted thealcoholic beveragesin the list of class 1 carcinogens, therefore among those responsible for tumor formation. For this reason, thewine, asalcoholic beverage, can be assimilated to cigarette smoke.
Red wine: what it contains
Thewineit is a liquid mixture consisting mainly of water and ethyl alcohol. Wine, however, contains many other substances which vary from producer to producer.
Wine contains aromatic compounds capable of givingtypical taste and aromas as well as other substances that have a harmful effect on health such as sulfur dioxide or methyl acid. The Red wine contains antioxidants (polyphenol, anthocyanins ...), tartaric acid, glycerol, lactic acid, malic acid, citric acid, nitrogen compounds, other mineral salts already present in grapes and sugars that have not completed fermentation. In addition, many producers of red wine artificially add sucrose to wine which, however, is not present in the final product as it reacts quickly.
In red wine there is no lack of carbon dioxide, sulphites and tannins, which can give a sense of satiety and swelling. In particular, tannins can inhibit the absorption of iron and zinc and also of some vitamins.
Red wine: benefits and harm
TheRed wineit is often the subject of very controversial studies. These studies try to balance the effect of ethanol (alcohol) with actionantioxidantcarried out by the molecules present in theRed wine.
Red wine, in fact, is rich in antioxidants, among which the best known ispolyphenol reveratrol.
There are various mechanisms of action that see polyphenol active in cancer prevention.
In summary: the molecule believed to be carcinogenic is acetaldehyde, which is a metabolite product of ethanol contained in red wine.
The same Red wine, however, it also provides polyphenol.
Polyphenol, at the level of the gastro-intestinal tract, would oxidize the acetaldehyde making it harmless for our body.
Ethyl alcohol is considered a carcinogen, in particular acetaldehyde is considered a causative factor for liver cancer, a high risk factor for cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus and a risk factor for gastrointestinal tract and breast cancer.
Studies highlighting ibenefits of wineclaim that the amount of polyphenol contained in the wine would be able to overcome the carcinogenic action carried out by acetaldehyde.
Is red wine good for the heart?
This question is also very controversial. Although in red wine there are certain antioxidant substances useful for the cardiovascular system, it is also true that alcohol has numerous chronic effects on the circulatory system. Alcohol can be responsible for arrhythmias (it depresses the contractility of the heart muscle) and can cause an increase in blood pressure.
An increase in the incidence of heart attack has been observed among those who consume a daily amount of alcohol between 40 and 60 grams.
Red wine: alcohol content and recommended daily amount
In fact, it is wrong to speak of alcohol content of the wine. The reason? In Italy, by law, we speak of actual alcoholic strength by volume and it is that value reported on the label. This value is often definedalcohol content carried out.
How to understand how much alcohol a glass of wine contains? Reading the label on the bottle. The percentage of alcohol actually contained in the Red wineit is indicated in percentage on the label. For example, a Red winewhich contains 110 ml of alcohol per liter has an alcohol percentage of 11%.
Due to the difference in "alcohol content”Of the different types of red wine, it is difficult to estimate a daily quantity to consume. To estimate the daily amount of red wine you can consume, you need to consider not only the alcohol content but also the calorie intake, your age, your metabolism and the lifestyle you lead. For this reason, any recommended daily amount you find online, you should take as an orientation.
Talking about alcohol content and not of alcoholic degree carried out, wanting to generalize, the quantity ofRed wineto be consumed per day should amount to 125 ml considering aRed winewith an "alcohol content" of 12 ° (an alcohol unit of about 12 grams of alcohol).
Red wine: contraindications
It should be avoided absolutely in case of pregnancy and breastfeeding. To be avoided in those suffering from arrhythmias, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes or obesity.
It can be useful: red wine without sulphites