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Types of soil


Classification of soil types: clayey, silty, sandy, gravelly… All useful information on the characteristics and fertility of the soil.

We all know the ground it is composed of an organic and an inorganic portion. The fertility of a ground it really depends on quality of these two components. One firstsoil classificationin fact, we can make it based on the quantity and quality of organic and mineral portion.

Characteristics of the terrain

On the basis of the inorganic portion we distinguish several types of terrain. It is the mineral or inorganic component that determines a good number of soil characteristics, such as:

  • The hardness
    Is it a compact and consistent soil?
  • The permeability
    How much water remains? How much water is drained? How much does the soil absorb?
  • Cultivability
    From a point of view agricultural, it is a ground suitable for cultivation?

As for the fertility of a soil, many people focus only on the organic fraction but this is not the case. There soil fertility it depends on 50% of the organic portion and 50% on the inorganic one!

To the characteristics described above, we must add the texture that determines the permeability of a ground, in fact, plus the particles that make up a ground they are thin, the more the water will be retained in the soil.

Based on the soil type it is not only possible to determine which vegetables to grow but by knowing the ground it will be possible to determine how often to provide irrigation. In short, the knowledge ofgroundthat we have at our disposal is a powerful weapon.

Types of soil

Mainly we have fourtypes of terrain which differ in their structure, we thus have the ground clayey, silty and sandy. There is also a fourth type of soil called gravelly ground.

Clayey soil, characteristics

Among its advantages we see that it can retain a lot of moisture and is rich in nutrients (very fertile).

Its negative sides are strongly related to the structure: by retaining moisture it presents difficulties in drainage and to improve its structure, it needs a lot of manpower with the addition of compost and organic fertilizers.

It is better suited for greenhouse crops as it tends to freeze very easily due to the high humidity it can retain.

How to recognize a clayey soil

It stands out to the touch for its plastic consistency and for the fact that it manages to maintain the given shape. You may find my article useful:how to recognize the types of terrain

Loamy soil, characteristics

Among its advantages we see that it retains moisture without water stagnation and has an excellent oxygen exchange. The ground silty is considered among the best types of terrain for crops.

How to make a loamy soil? The only advice we can give to the orthoist is to "treat" the soil with mulch!

How to recognize a loamy soil

It stands out to the touch because it is quite slippery. As the ground clayey retains its shape but unlike this, loamy soil tends to break easily.

Sandy soil, characteristics

It has excellent drainage but does not retain moisture and tends to be acidic. Due to these characteristics, a basically sandy soil is mixed with the soil for the cultivation of various acidophilic species or succulent plants that need a high drainage.

How to recognize a sandy soil?

It crumbles very easily and is recognizable because it is very grainy to the touch.

Gravel soil, characteristics

The soil is said to be gravel when the percentage of gravel exceeds 40%. Anysoil typeit can be gravelly. A gravelly soil loses the ability to retain water so it is unable to support tall trees. Gravel soils are very easy to recognize because they are characterized by a visible presence of gravel.

A gravel ground is not necessarily bad for theagriculture. The presence of the stones helps to mitigate the temperature variations between day and night. The stones accumulate heat and release it to crops during the night. This feature makes thegravelly ground- if properly managed - to the cultivation of vineyards and some fruit trees such as cherry and apple trees.

Thegravelly groundit is considered a kind of sandy soil.

Types of soil

In addition to the categories listed above, there are moreclassifications. For example, just talking about clayey soils, we have slightly clayey, moderately clayey or very clayey soils. Still talking about a clayey soil, we find the definition ofheavy soilwhile for the loamy soil we can speak ofmedium-textured soil.

A medium-textured soil is rich in humus (organic substance of vegetable or animal origin) while a heavy soil is very clayey, therefore composed of very fine particles up to 1000 times smaller than sand.

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Video: Types of SOIL. Soil class 3 (May 2021).