When you have theI suspect aautoimmune diseasebetweenblood analysisthat may allow an accurate investigation include those ofautoantibodies.
Theautoantibodiesare immunoglobulins whose target is not an external pathogen such as a virus or parasite; the target ofautoantibodiesit is represented by substances belonging to the same organism. In fact, autoimmune diseases are characterized by this mechanism of action: the immune barrier that should protect us attacks specific substances and tissues of the body, causing inflammation where it shouldn't.
Please note: not allautoantibodiesare related to oneautoimmune diseaseand before taking initiatives to perform clinical analyzes and tests, it is better to be followed by your trusted doctor so as to carry out a battery of targeted tests.
For cognitive purposes only, here is a list of autoantibodies which can be determined with blood tests in order to diagnose a disease.
Autoimmune disease: what it is
It is a pathogenic condition in which your body producesautoantibodies, i.e. characteristic antibodies that can attack the body.
Speak aboutautoantibodiesit does not give us any specific idea of a pathology, nor of a medical condition given that someautoantibodiesthey are not related toautoimmune diseases. In the analytical laboratory, in order to refute onediagnosisdifferent tests may be requiredautoantibodies. For completeness I report all the texts of theautoantibodiesthat are performed in a clinical setting.
In this context it would be more appropriate to talk aboutanti-thyroid antibodies, it's about thosethyroid autoantibodies, ie “organ-specific” which target the thyroid gland (alter the normal function of the thyroid).
I'mautoantibodiesproduced by the body and attack somecomponentsthyroidas thethyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase and microsomal antigen. Often, thethyroid antibodies, are found in autoimmune diseases such as:
- Hoshimoto's thyroid gland
- Graves' disease
Thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-tg)
We always talk aboutthyroid autoantibodies, in this case more specifically. The Anti-TGs areautoantibodiesspecific body directed against thethyroglobulin(Tg) which is the main protein component of the colloidthyroid.
Don't know the meaning of thyroid colloid?
It is the substance contained in the thyroid gland and includes almost all of the glandular iodine (from the thyroid itself).
Anti-type (thyroid peroxidase antibodies)
I'mautoantibodieswhich, like the previous ones, have the thyroid gland as their "target organ". I am thereforeorgan specific auto antibodies directed against thyroid peroxidase by preventing the action of the enzyme. Thyroid peroxidase is an enzyme that converts the amino acid tyrosine intothyroglobulin.
We always talk aboutthyroid autoantibodiesbut in this case it's not aboutautoantibodiesspecific organ because it can attack the microsomal antigen. This antigen is present on the microsomes of the cells of thethyroid.
It is a very specific diagnostic test used for constructing the diagnosis ofrheumatoid arthritis, among the most common autoimmune diseases. It is used as a "confirmation test" in case of "rheumatoid factor". The "high rheumatoid factor" alone, is non-specific, because thisimmunoglobulinit can be found in numerous autoimmune diseases such as:
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Sjogren's syndrome
- Other autoimmune diseases
There are severalnon-organ specific autoantibodieswidely spread in our organism. These are detected in severalautoimmune diseasessuch as systemic lupus erythematosus but also in non-autoimmune diseases such as liver cirrhosis, hepatitis and collagen diseases. TheseautoantibodiesI'm:
- Anti-DNA antibodies
- A. Anti-mitochondria
- Anti-nucleolus antibodies
- Anti-core-protein antibodies
Ana autoantibodies: anti Nucleus antibodies
Among the diagnostic tests, very common are those ofanti-nucleus antibodiessynthesized as ANA. ANA "anti-nucleus antibodies" are so called because they are auto-antibodies that attack the nucleus of certain cells. In normal physiological conditions they do not existANA levelssignificant but are generally low in title.
ANAs are used for the diagnosis of various autoimmune diseases, the main ones being systemic connectivitis.
In this context we speak oforgan specific auto antibodies, are produced by the immune system andthey attackthe intestinal mucosa.
Thisblood analysisis generally required if you suspectgluten intelligence (celiac disease), a disease that creates annoying symptoms in conjunction with the intake of wheat, rye, oat and barley proteins.
Indiagnosis of celiac diseaseyou go tointercept othersautoantibodiesWhich:
- tTG,anti-transglutaminase antibodies
- Anti-Gliadin antibodies
Autoantibodies of smooth and striated muscle
I'mnon-organ specific autoantibodies which can affect muscle tissue. Thesmooth and striated muscle antibody testis required when liver disease is suspected. These values are altered in case ofmyasthenia, in chronic active hepatitis and other hepatic and proliferative diseases.
Vasculitis, infertility, hepatitis and adrenal problems
In the diagnosis of vasculitis theautoantibodiessought after are:
- ANCA (anti Neutrophil Granulocytes)
- MPO (Anti Myeloperoxidase)
- PR3 (Anti-Proteinase antibodies)
- GBM (Anti Glomerular Basal Membrane)
In case of adrenal diseases, investigations are carried out with theautoantibodiesAAGA (anti-adrenal cortex antibodies).
Theautoantibodiesthey can also causeinfertility. This is the case of anti-ovarian antibodies (AOVA) in women and anti-testicular antibodies (ATLA) inmale infertility.
To conclude the list, I point out theautoantibodiesrelated to autoimmune diseases affecting the liver.
- AMA (Anti-mitochondrial antibodies).
- LKM (Anti Hepatic and Renal Microsomes).
- ASTHMA (already mentioned, they interfere with smooth and striated muscle).
- LC-1 (Antibodies to hepatic cytoplasmic antigen).
In case ofdiabetes, the diabetes specialist may request an investigation for the followingauto antibodies:
- GAD, Anti Glutamic Decarboxylase Antibodies
- ICA, anti-insula pancreatic antibodies
- IAA, anti-insulin antibodies