Zoonoses: dog and cat, what are the diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans, how to prevent them and what you should know.
Thezoonosesit's diseases transmitted to humansfrom different animals. We mostly talk about dog zoonosisiscat zoonosissince dogs and cats are the two most common domestic animals, zoonoses linked to wild animals or unsuspected animals are equally frequent. Do not forget, for example, the illnesses transmitted to humans by animals such as raccoon because of which, the raccoon (raccoon) was included in the list of "dangerous animals for humans" like the viper.
There are hundreds and hundreds of zoonoses, it would be impossible to list them all and for this we will limit ourselves to making a general overview and talking aboutzoonosesmore frequent and greater risk for humans.
Man should be morecautiouswhen it comes into contact with animals which, in turn, have come into contact with stray or wild animals. For example, if you take your dog for a walk to the park and there are many stray dogs, without any vaccine and control, know that your dog is at risk and, consequently, you with him!
Thezoonosesthey are also frequent infarms. Just think of the sheep that go to graze on a field where wild species pass. If among the wild species a specimen deposits onedejection, the sheep grazing on the same meadow can be subject to fecal-oral contamination. This example is not only valid for sheep but also for goats, cattle, rabbits and other animals.
How are diseases transmitted from an animal to man?
If you are wondering how the "contagion" between "dog" and "man" occurs or how the disease passes from a cat to a pregnant woman ... know that the means of transmission are always the same, regardless of the animal you have in front of.
Transmission can take place through:
- Natural openings in the body such as the respiratory system (mouth and nose) and ocular mucous membranes. These are the most frequent access routes when it comes tozoonosis of domestic animals.
- Skin lesions and micro-lesions represent another way of access for the parasites responsible for zoonosis.
If the skin lesions are not pre-existing, one can think ofzoonosestransmittedgive her with animal bites and stings. Malaria, for example, is a very frequent zoonosis and is transmitted with the bite of a mosquito that acts as a vector. Various diseases can be transmitted through the bite of a rodent ... not to mention mites and rabbits. Malaria is not the only disease transmitted by mosquitoes, we also remember yellow fever and human disease (African human trypanosomiasis).
Most of thepathogens that cause zoonosesthey are released in nature through faeces or urine. Man too can be a direct victim of this transmission. How?
- If the man has a micro-injury to the skin of the foot and walks barefoot on a river or on a meadow where there is contaminated urine ...
- Through the ingestion of contaminated foods (vegetables not washed well ...)
- With dirty hands, it seems trivial but if your hands come into contact with cysts or other contaminated elements and then eat something, you can ingest the unwanted host organism ... or if you rub the contaminated hand on the mucous membranes or eyes ...
In short, the case history is very wide and for this reason it is important to be careful.
Zoonosis dog and cat
Many parasites are conveyed through the fecal material and among them severalwormysuch as those caused byascarids(nematodes). These parasites can live in the intestines of dogs and cats, producing propagation material that is excreted with the feces.
Theretransmission to humansoccurs via the faeces as explained above. The propagation material, which for simplicity we will call "egg" is invisible to the naked eye and when it arrives in the human intestine it gives life to a larva that can move freely in the intestine through the bloodstream. The now developed nematode,larva migrans, can reach the liver or the eye,causing severe damage.
Otherszoonosis dog and catare hydatidosis and cysticercosis caused by tapeworms. The tapeworm lives in the dog's intestine and can exploit other vector animals such as the cat, rabbitor other herbivorous animals.
Theregiardiasisis another parasite that can be transmitted in the feces of dogs and cats.
Zoonosis in pregnancy
When it comes tocat zoonosis, one cannot help but mention thetoxoplasmosis, much feared bypregnant woman. Toxoplasmosis is not very dangerous for men but in pregnant women it can represent a serious risk for the fetus: it could cause malformations.
Instead of "demonizing" the cat, the pregnant woman could apply good preventive practices. The cat becomes infected by eating mice or birds that are the vector of the responsible pathogen. The cat releases the oocysts of the protozoan (a kind of egg) through the feces which, in this way, can infect humans.
Cats that live exclusively indoors have no chance of transmitting toxoplasmosis. Among the good prevention practices there is:
- Subject the cat to constant veterinary visits and carry out any treatments
- Clean the litter often to eliminate newly expelled oocysts
- Take care of personal hygiene
- Clean the house
- Avoid handling food with dirty hands
Among the otherszoonotic dog and cat we report the Leptospirosis caused by the bacterium Leptospira.